Contingency as a Behaviour

plumbing
After a late evening fixing a plumbing emergency at home, I’m reminded of the concept of contingency and how it can’t be practically be used as a buffer for all non-planned events.
 
So with my current main client, I start out early in the morning, long before must people (or birds) have risen. My wife told me about an hour before I was due to go to bed early in order to wake early that we had an issue.
 
Applying typical contingency management as found in most projects wouldn’t help. That’s the type where a task is estimated to take 2 days, so you add in some contingency for that task. What would have happened in that case? All the tasks had finished, we were effectively waiting for a deploy (ok, it was a deploy of one person to a train, so I’m stretching the analogy a bit)
 
Applying a buffer contingency may have helped somewhat, but again, the tasks had all completed, there was no buffer to call upon before the deploy.
 
House alarms/Burglar alarms encourage similar behaviours. You only discover that the alarm isn’t working when you come to set it on departing your house. Again, no typical contingency would resolve the issues.
 
In the above examples, we’d usually have to add more time for the journey in the morning (possibly even travelling the day before). But the more we do that, the more ridiculous the timescales become and the demands on those involved become more exorbitant to accommodate for any issues. Even with buffer management, at some point we’ve passed the point where the buffer can be applied.
 
The only alternative that I’m aware of for this type of issue is one of preparation. It becomes more about damage limitation. So in my example, have I prepared for what I would do if I have to remain at home, if the train is delayed or cancelled, if the my taxi doesn’t arrive on time, if my car doesn’t start? Those are more the failure modes, as can be explored using an FMEA matrix for example.
 
From that perspective, contingency isn’t just a buffer (whether applied to a single task or applied to the project), it’s a behaviour and it’s planning about what if. It’s about ensuring that you know what to do, have the resources to do it and can execute in the time required, at whatever time it happens.

How much is too much training?

Hospital ward
I’m divided in this, but lean towards only brief training, just enough to inform them, rather than enough to practice.
 
On one hand, it pays to understand why change in general is necessary and specifically, why the change that you’re about to implement is necessary. Often I see professionals who spend time with the person sat in front of them (and so they are patient-centred) but ignore the mass of people also requiring the same service. It’s not that they can’t see the queue (whether a real standing queue or a waiting list), it’s that if they recognise the queue then they realise that they can’t serve everyone to the same level. For some, it’s a question of professional ethics, where their professional body demands that they treat the person in front of them to the best of their ability, regardless of the needs of others. There are good reasons for that approach.
 
Usually, someone, e.g. a manager or budget holder, recognises the capacity issue and so increases the eligibility threshold or reduces the professional time available for that treatment. This is an attempt to average it out. However it misses the point that some treatments take time to work, if you half the time available, then you may get zero results, not 50% of the results had you allowed the necessary time for full treatment. It also leads to a worsening service as the capacity gets further reduced through a series of cuts, so that wouldn’t be the answer that we’d choose given a choice.
 
More fundamentally, the communities that the local and regional health providers serve are different to those that existed 30 years ago and the changed communities have different needs. So, it seems obvious that we have to adapt the service to meet the changed needs.
 
On the other hand, the health professionals are just that; professionals in health. There will be some with additional skills; some complementary, some tangential. I wouldn’t expect health professionals to be experts at change. However they do need to be aware of the change and why they have to contribute. As do we all, no matter what job we perform, no matter which sector we work in.
 
By recognising the above issues, we can more easily understand why we have to continually change. It’s a matter of adapting to needs. However that doesn’t feel like it requires a formal training in the guise of a university module, more an hour or so during induction combined with some questions during the interview to assess their attitude to change. I expect the professionals to know the service best, so they should be best placed to change it rather than having budgetary changes applied without thought to impact on patients.
 
To get this message across and gain acceptance and commitment from the group, I usually go through the need for change at the start of any change programme and definitely before each intervention.
 
One area where I think some training could be useful is in negotiating and debating how services will change. The changes will happen, but being able to influence the changes could be invaluable. Oddly enough though, it’s probably not the health professionals who need the training, instead it’s for anyone who’s trying to change the service, e.g. performance improvement staff, HR/OD, commissioners, etc.
 
I think the reason for my varied opinions above is that I see a difference between management and change management. I acknowledge that management techniques should be taught in advance as well as broad concepts of changes management, whereas the required, more detailed parts of change management can be taught as required.
 
I don’t believe we should conduct changes without speaking to the end customer. Taking on the role of patient, I’d much prefer the consultant to have spent their time learning how to treat patients, rather than learning how to manage change. Let’s permit some degree of functional specialisation, with front-line professionals continuing to be good at what they do and change professionals helping them create/design the service that the patients need.
 
However, I recognise that many front-line professionals either don’t have access to change professionals or do have access but that they’re not listened to. Hence the need for a book that’s applied for front-line staff.

Exclusive Relationships

Exclusivity

Have you considered the exclusivity of your relationships?

This follows on from the post regarding the value of the data and the priority attached to the relationship or the data. I want to further explore the value of the relationship and shine some light on a different approach.

The Scenario

It’s the same scenario as the previous article, imagine you’re in a store, purchasing a product and you’re asked for your email address. How do you respond? Do you have a default answer? When was the last time you chose a different response and what prompted that change?

Rationale

Email
Email

Depending on how you value your time, how you value access to your time (and distractions) such as providing your email or how you value the privacy of your email address, you’ll respond differently to the request. All of these are currency that can be traded:

  1. Your time
  2. Access to your time – this is different to (1) since it relates to an acknowledgement that there is a route to your time, but you can safeguard it. Whereas (1) is more protective of time as a resource or possession.
  3. The privacy of your email address

These can be traded for items in the following non-exhaustive list:

  1. Discounts – immediately applied
  2. Discounts – off future purchases
  3. A free product/service
  4. Entry to a competition
  5. An item/service that others don’t have access to

The one I’m interested in exploring further is 5.

Different Perspectives

Reserved
Reserved

Let’s consider two ways of thinking:

  1. A company asking customers for email addresses so they can email them once a week with slightly reduced clothing that the company wants to sell before it has to sell in bulk to a discounter, so that it can clear space for the new season’s stock.
  2. The concept of fashion store charging for admission, maintaining exclusivity and ensuring that the experience warrants charging for entry.

That first option is the one followed by the majority of companies. We have to question, just how big a financial incentive is required to gain valuable email addresses/contact details. After all, we primarily want to focus on those people who are most likely to buy. More than that, we want to focus on those that we can convince to buy more than they would have done. It’s a balance between offering enough to get people interested but to keep the discount percentage low enough you’re not losing out. Isn’t this the attitude of 95% of retail companies? But it doesn’t feel an equal relationship. We’ll continue to explore the impact on emails, but recognise that there are other, more modern and interactive channels available as well.

That second option introduces another concept that alters the relationship. It focusses on entertaining the customer, providing a valuable experience that the customer would pay for.

Now let’s extrapolate that further by using the same principles.

Can we develop a mailing list that people would pay to be on?

What would we have to offer that customer in order for them to want to pay to access it?

Following the fashion store concept from above, exclusivity is the angle. That fits (5) as above. Instead of a situation where the item of value is the email address and we request that item so we can use it as the channel to contact the customer/prospect, we end up with a situation where the email address becomes the channel but is offered to us (potentially along with payment) so that the customer can access the list. The relationship is reversed.

Nightclubs, restaurants and social clubs/business clubs have been using exclusivity for decades (and centuries in some cases). This isn’t new. Before email, there were postal lists you could pay to be on. Again, this isn’t new.

That relationship reversal then implies one of two choices:

  1. We provide a service centred on exclusivity and customers will pay to access that service via an email list. But the service/product is what they want access to. Or
  2. We provide a service that is in the email content itself. And customers pay to receive that email.

The first is similar to exclusive wine clubs, members clubs, etc. The channel isn’t important, it’s the end product that counts. There’s little value to the email itself; it’s a conduit or an access channel to the product. Some of the crowd-funding platforms such as Kickstarter blend the mass-market with the exclusive by restricting access to early adopters or sponsors.

The second is interesting because it would have to be a information-only service since it’s delivered over email. We’re then left with the question of what content could be provided with a degree of exclusivity and create a demand from prospects? For that, we can look to previous centuries (and the current century and stock market information). The value is in the effort, skill and knowledge involved in the financial analysis that isn’t in the email. Part of the perceived value is in the brand and reputation. Hence the existence of con artists creating ponzi schemes on the back of fabricated or incremental reputations.

Conclusion

We’ve covered the concepts of the items of value that a potential consumer could be traded, the items that they could be traded for, explored the idea of creating a chargeable service and how exclusivity could apply to that service.

Where does that leave us?

We could create exclusivity in our relationship with customers by restricting the size of the segment (e.g. first 100), we could offer that email for a cost, we could create a difference in the products/services specific to the segment or we could create an exclusive product where the channel communication itself is the product.

How accurate is your testing routine?

Traynor Guitar Amp

Testing is not just for software, but for the business processes, organisation or service that you’re implementing?

I’ve seen many test routines that are too artificial, too removed from the reality of what the users will go through. Fortunately this factor has improved over time, especially with more focus on user stories.

Let’s consider one of the best examples of testing I’ve ever seen. Guitar amps are generally fragile. They’re usually robust enough for scrapes and minor bashes as you’re carrying them through doorways, but they don’t survive being dropped down stairs very well.

One amp manufacturer had a test routine of removing the glass valves (they’re replaceable consumables) and then throwing the test amp from the roof of the building to emulate the journey that some amps go through. On the ground, they inserted valves and powered it up to see if it would work.

How does that compare to your test routine? Is yours as accurate to the reality that it will be used in?

Here’s a clip of the actual test

Art requires rigour, science requires creativity

RigourAndCreativity

I heard this quote the other day, but I didn’t catch who originally said it.

Art requires rigour, science requires creativity

The first point is that it’s contrary to the standard view. The second point is that both perspectives are valid and that there shouldn’t be that much of a difference.

It then made me think of typical transformation programme roles and the relation between creativity and rigour. Most roles have a balance between the two, with that balance changing according to the standard role and, at times, according to the demands on that role.

RigourAndCreativity
Rigour And Creativity

For instance, process analysts should generally follow a set of standards. Business Analysts have to be more creative, but still have methodologies to follow. Service Designers have less rigour methods, usually a composition of tools and techniques rather than the standardised methodologies of previous decades. At the more rigorous side, project managers have their methodologies and frameworks to follow. Programme managers see a wider scope and have more creativity in organising the interdependencies. Which then fits nicely with my normal comment that a Business Architect has more in common with a Programme Manager than a Project Manager; there are more skills in common, even though the professional methods involved are different. Which leads me to the Business Architect who has to know when to be standardised and when to be creative. There has to be the flexibility to modify the approach to suit the needs of the client, depending on the stage of transformation.

 

 

 

 

Rain versus Innovation

rain

The following tweet made me consider, initially thinking about the place of Manchester in innovation, but also the wider concept of personal transport versus climate.

It rains in Manchester. From personal experience, Manchester doesn’t feel the rainiest place in the United Kingdom, but it does have a reputation for significant rainfall. That doesn’t dampen the city’s spirits. We just do things differently (that’ the obligatory Tony Wilson reference done)

The type of personal transportation afforded by a bicycle, whether electric or not, isn’t ideal in a climate that features rain heavily on its calendar. The cyclist has to wear weatherproofs, need a change of clothes in the office, probably a shower, and then the reverse on the way home. Or they could just get wet.

That doesn’t prevent cycling in Manchester; it just makes us think more about our journeys. We can’t be as relaxed in planning them.

That creates inertia to change. Which prompted me to think about climates where single person vehicle commuting could be more suitable. Regardless of Britain’s position in the world ranking of innovation, does that mean that Britain will get overtaken by other countries with more suitable climates?

Britain’s transport infrastructure always feels more intensive compared to any other country I’ve travelled to. I’ve seen the quizzical expressions when explaining to US colleagues that we may have to set aside a day to travel 250 miles in the UK (it doesn’t always but it massively depends on which 250 miles you want to travel). But I’ve yet to experience Japan or similarly densely populated countries. With innovation being driven by warmer climates, especially in terms of Silicon Valley, or countries with larger infrastructure (e.g. China, Germany and again, the United States), you can imagine solutions being solved for those countries and climates, not the UK’s. To be clear, it’s no-one but the UK’s and EU’s role to alleviate transport issues in the UK, let innovation solve the problems of each country. Some will be applicable beyond the geographical boundaries in which they were developed, some won’t be. Which then creates an inequality. It’s not the inequality created by resources or the centralisation of power or empire. Instead, it’s an inequality created by provenance of ideas in relation to the location.

Which reminds me, I wonder how the doors on Tesla’s model X fare in Manchester. Our rain is usually accompanied by wind so it blows sideways, not falls down.

Draft or Final

Agreement

Some organisations have a different approach to how they handle the status of a document. The approach belies a more fundamental culture of how work is commissioned and reviewed and how staff are viewed.

Background

Report
Report

One of my clients exhibited odd behaviour regarding commissioning work and approving it.

Due to the nature of the engagement, decisions were made by me and then relayed to the client. That, almost unilateral, form of decision-making has not be the norm for my engagements. Instead, I’d have preferred to have reviewed the actions while I was working on those actions (rather than after the fact). It was all a bit backwards compared to any other client engagement, where we would address scope questions early on and progress from that more detailed, joint understanding.

Even though I was assessing business capability maturity, it felt contractual. I would have preferred a more collaborative approach, but the organisation’s approach to generating change was a contractual one. It’s an issue I’ve seen before but not as stark as with this client.

Status

Correcting
Correcting

What I’d noticed with this client, was that if a document were released (no matter what version or draft status), it would be treated as final and published. The review comments would imply that the author had made mistakes and that it should never have been released in that format. Fortunately that didn’t happen to me, but that’s probably more to do with how I released documents. My documents had the same version control I’m used to including with many clients and consultancies. Draft documents (assuming little or no sensitive content) are published early to the intended audience for review, in order to influence the outcome and content of the report. The more sensitive the content, the more restricted the initial distribution and the earlier that guidance is requested.

With this particular client in mind, that approach would raise conflicting issues. The reviewers wanted to be able to influence the outcome of the commissioned work, due to the political status within the organisation. But the reviewers wanted to meet as a group to review the version, not necessarily as a steering group, to guide the work to completion, but as a review panel.

Implication

Review Panel
Review Panel

I had to tread carefully as to what documents I would release to anyone, regardless of draft status. While I’m used to not initially sharing electronic versions of documents with some clients, it was more important with this client. It created an odd culture, where people would complete work before releasing it, which then created rework and longer delays due to having to fit in reviews and changes.

Perversely, it also created a set of behaviours where many documents never reached a true state of finalisation or approval. Instead, they continued in some draft existence until ignored or replaced. That was a common occurrence, where I’d be looking for a previous strategy document, to find that it never reached completion, but became generally accepted as defining a destination or discarded. However, there had been no formal acceptance or rejection of the content, just a tacit decision across many people.

Reverse-Engineering the Culture

Hierarchy of pieces
Hierarchy of pieces

I think that much of the commission and review behaviour occurred due to the hierarchical nature of the organisation. That culture enforced a situation where superiors reviewed the output of their underlings. Couple that with an admonishing culture, rather than a praising culture, and you end up with a situation in which documents have to be final, or the critique becomes more about the person than about the document itself.

This was more than just a client seeing a document and then acting on it, treating it as a final document, e.g. to assist with negotiation or alter their position within the organisation. This was a systematic approach to not adhering to how artefacts are created and developed through to release and acceptance.

There was a severe hierarchy in the organisation where one grade couldn’t comfortably jump a grade when communicating, instead everything had to be passed up or down the chain. While organisations can work like that, many adapt and maintain the lines of communication even with flexibility and the exigencies of operating in any modern market. This organisation did not flex and those that did flex were generally put them back into place.

All of this led to gross inefficiencies and confusion due to navigating the corporate hierarchy. I’ll reiterate, the concept isn’t rare, but the ultra-strict adherence to hierarchy is rare.

This particular client compounded the inefficiencies from the hierarchy with the inefficiencies of poor document version management (or rather the document acceptance process), resulting in intricate, exhausting dance of what to share and what not to share, who to share it with and who not to share it with. All of this encouraged and promoted a contractual culture rather than a collaborative culture.